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ATmega16-16PU Arkusz danych(PDF) 87 Page - ATMEL Corporation

Numer części ATmega16-16PU
Szczegółowy opis  8-bit Microcontroller with 16K Bytes In-Syustem Programmable Flash
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Producent  ATMEL [ATMEL Corporation]
Strona internetowa  http://www.atmel.com
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ATmega16-16PU Arkusz danych(HTML) 87 Page - ATMEL Corporation

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2466S–AVR–05/09
ATmega16(L)
Timer/Counter0
and
Timer/Counter1
Prescalers
Timer/Counter1 and Timer/Counter0 share the same prescaler module, but the Timer/Counters
can have different prescaler settings. The description below applies to both Timer/Counter1 and
Timer/Counter0.
Internal Clock Source
The Timer/Counter can be clocked directly by the system clock (by setting the CSn2:0 = 1). This
provides the fastest operation, with a maximum Timer/Counter clock frequency equal to system
clock frequency (f
CLK_I/O). Alternatively, one of four taps from the prescaler can be used as a
clock source. The prescaled clock has a frequency of either f
CLK_I/O/8, fCLK_I/O/64, fCLK_I/O/256, or
f
CLK_I/O/1024.
Prescaler Reset
The prescaler is free running, i.e., operates independently of the clock select logic of the
Timer/Counter, and it is shared by Timer/Counter1 and Timer/Counter0. Since the prescaler is
not affected by the Timer/Counter’s clock select, the state of the prescaler will have implications
for situations where a prescaled clock is used. One example of prescaling artifacts occurs when
the timer is enabled and clocked by the prescaler (6 > CSn2:0 > 1). The number of system clock
cycles from when the timer is enabled to the first count occurs can be from 1 to N+1 system
clock cycles, where N equals the prescaler divisor (8, 64, 256, or 1024).
It is possible to use the Prescaler Reset for synchronizing the Timer/Counter to program execu-
tion. However, care must be taken if the other Timer/Counter that shares the same prescaler
also uses prescaling. A prescaler reset will affect the prescaler period for all Timer/Counters it is
connected to.
External Clock Source
An external clock source applied to the T1/T0 pin can be used as Timer/Counter clock
(clk
T1/clkT0). The T1/T0 pin is sampled once every system clock cycle by the pin synchronization
logic. The synchronized (sampled) signal is then passed through the edge detector. Figure 38
shows a functional equivalent block diagram of the T1/T0 synchronization and edge detector
logic. The registers are clocked at the positive edge of the internal system clock (clk
I/O). The latch
is transparent in the high period of the internal system clock.
The edge detector generates one clk
T1/clkT0 pulse for each positive (CSn2:0 = 7) or negative
(CSn2:0 = 6) edge it detects.
Figure 38. T1/T0 Pin Sampling
The synchronization and edge detector logic introduces a delay of 2.5 to 3.5 system clock cycles
from an edge has been applied to the T1/T0 pin to the counter is updated.
Enabling and disabling of the clock input must be done when T1/T0 has been stable for at least
one system clock cycle, otherwise it is a risk that a false Timer/Counter clock pulse is generated.
Each half period of the external clock applied must be longer than one system clock cycle to
ensure correct sampling. The external clock must be guaranteed to have less than half the sys-
tem clock frequency (f
ExtClk < fclk_I/O/2) given a 50/50% duty cycle. Since the edge detector uses
Tn_sync
(To Clock
Select Logic)
Edge Detector
Synchronization
DQ
DQ
LE
DQ
Tn
clk
I/O


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