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ATmega16-16PU Arkusz danych(PDF) 12 Page - ATMEL Corporation

Numer części ATmega16-16PU
Szczegółowy opis  8-bit Microcontroller with 16K Bytes In-Syustem Programmable Flash
Download  357 Pages
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Producent  ATMEL [ATMEL Corporation]
Strona internetowa  http://www.atmel.com
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ATmega16-16PU Arkusz danych(HTML) 12 Page - ATMEL Corporation

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12
2466S–AVR–05/09
ATmega16(L)
The X-register, Y-
register and Z-register
The registers R26..R31 have some added functions to their general purpose usage. These reg-
isters are 16-bit address pointers for indirect addressing of the Data Space. The three indirect
address registers X, Y, and Z are defined as described in Figure 5.
Figure 5. The X-, Y-, and Z-registers
In the different addressing modes these address registers have functions as fixed displacement,
automatic increment, and automatic decrement (see the Instruction Set Reference for details).
Stack Pointer
The Stack is mainly used for storing temporary data, for storing local variables and for storing
return addresses after interrupts and subroutine calls. The Stack Pointer Register always points
to the top of the Stack. Note that the Stack is implemented as growing from higher memory loca-
tions to lower memory locations. This implies that a Stack PUSH command decreases the Stack
Pointer. If software reads the Program Counter from the Stack after a call or an interrupt, unused
bits (15:13) should be masked out.
The Stack Pointer points to the data SRAM Stack area where the Subroutine and Interrupt
Stacks are located. This Stack space in the data SRAM must be defined by the program before
any subroutine calls are executed or interrupts are enabled. The Stack Pointer must be set to
point above $60. The Stack Pointer is decremented by one when data is pushed onto the Stack
with the PUSH instruction, and it is decremented by two when the return address is pushed onto
the Stack with subroutine call or interrupt. The Stack Pointer is incremented by one when data is
popped from the Stack with the POP instruction, and it is incremented by two when data is
popped from the Stack with return from subroutine RET or return from interrupt RETI.
The AVR Stack Pointer is implemented as two 8-bit registers in the I/O space. The number of
bits actually used is implementation dependent. Note that the data space in some implementa-
tions of the AVR architecture is so small that only SPL is needed. In this case, the SPH Register
will not be present.
15
XH
XL
0
X - register
70
7
0
R27 ($1B)
R26 ($1A)
15
YH
YL
0
Y - register
70
7
0
R29 ($1D)
R28 ($1C)
15
ZH
ZL
0
Z - register
70
7
0
R31 ($1F)
R30 ($1E)
Bit
151413
1211
10
9
8
SP15
SP14
SP13
SP12
SP11
SP10
SP9
SP8
SPH
SP7
SP6
SP5
SP4
SP3
SP2
SP1
SP0
SPL
765
432
10
Read/Write
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Initial Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
000
000
00


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