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• Bit 1 – EEWE: EEPROM Write Enable
The EEPROM Write Enable Signal EEWE is the write strobe to the EEPROM. When address
and data are correctly set up, the EEWE bit must be written to one to write the value into the
EEPROM. The EEMWE bit must be written to one before a logical one is written to EEWE, oth-
erwise no EEPROM write takes place. The following procedure should be followed when writing
the EEPROM (the order of steps 3 and 4 is not essential):
Wait until EEWE becomes zero.
Wait until SPMEN in SPMCR becomes zero.
Write new EEPROM address to EEAR (optional).
Write new EEPROM data to EEDR (optional).
Write a logical one to the EEMWE bit while writing a zero to EEWE in EECR.
Within four clock cycles after setting EEMWE, write a logical one to EEWE.
The EEPROM can not be programmed during a CPU write to the Flash memory. The software
must check that the Flash programming is completed before initiating a new EEPROM write.
Step 2 is only relevant if the software contains a Boot Loader allowing the CPU to program the
Flash. If the Flash is never being updated by the CPU, step 2 can be omitted. See “Boot Loader
Support – Read-While-Write Self-Programming” on page 246 for details about boot
Caution: An interrupt between step 5 and step 6 will make the write cycle fail, since the
EEPROM Master Write Enable will time-out. If an interrupt routine accessing the EEPROM is
interrupting another EEPROM Access, the EEAR or EEDR reGister will be modified, causing the
interrupted EEPROM Access to fail. It is recommended to have the Global Interrupt Flag cleared
during all the steps to avoid these problems.
When the write access time has elapsed, the EEWE bit is cleared by hardware. The user soft-
ware can poll this bit and wait for a zero before writing the next byte. When EEWE has been set,
the CPU is halted for two cycles before the next instruction is executed.
• Bit 0 – EERE: EEPROM Read Enable
The EEPROM Read Enable Signal – EERE – is the read strobe to the EEPROM. When the cor-
rect address is set up in the EEAR Register, the EERE bit must be written to a logic one to
trigger the EEPROM read. The EEPROM read access takes one instruction, and the requested
data is available immediately. When the EEPROM is read, the CPU is halted for four cycles
before the next instruction is executed.
The user should poll the EEWE bit before starting the read operation. If a write operation is in
progress, it is neither possible to read the EEPROM, nor to change the EEAR Register.
The calibrated Oscillator is used to time the EEPROM accesses. Table 1 lists the typical pro-
gramming time for EEPROM access from the CPU.
1. Uses 1 MHz clock, independent of CKSEL Fuse setting.
The following code examples show one assembly and one C function for writing to the
EEPROM. The examples assume that interrupts are controlled (for example by disabling inter-
rupts globally) so that no interrupts will occur during execution of these functions. The examples
Table 1. EEPROM Programming Time
Number of Calibrated RC
Typ Programming Time
EEPROM write (from CPU)
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