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ATmega16-16PU Arkusz danych(PDF) 25 Page - ATMEL Corporation

Numer części ATmega16-16PU
Szczegółowy opis  8-bit Microcontroller with 16K Bytes In-Syustem Programmable Flash
Download  357 Pages
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Producent  ATMEL [ATMEL Corporation]
Strona internetowa  http://www.atmel.com
Logo ATMEL - ATMEL Corporation

ATmega16-16PU Arkusz danych(HTML) 25 Page - ATMEL Corporation

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2466S–AVR–05/09
ATmega16(L)
ADC Clock – clk
ADC
The ADC is provided with a dedicated clock domain. This allows halting the CPU and I/O clocks
in order to reduce noise generated by digital circuitry. This gives more accurate ADC conversion
results.
Clock Sources
The device has the following clock source options, selectable by Flash Fuse bits as shown
below. The clock from the selected source is input to the AVR clock generator, and routed to the
appropriate modules.
Note:
1. For all fuses “1” means unprogrammed while “0” means programmed.
The various choices for each clocking option is given in the following sections. When the CPU
wakes up from Power-down or Power-save, the selected clock source is used to time the start-
up, ensuring stable Oscillator operation before instruction execution starts. When the CPU starts
from Reset, there is as an additional delay allowing the power to reach a stable level before
commencing normal operation. The Watchdog Oscillator is used for timing this real-time part of
the start-up time. The number of WDT Oscillator cycles used for each time-out is shown in Table
3. The frequency of the Watchdog Oscillator is voltage dependent as shown in “ATmega16 Typ-
ical Characteristics” on page 299.
Default Clock
Source
The device is shipped with CKSEL = “0001” and SUT = “10”. The default clock source setting is
therefore the 1 MHz Internal RC Oscillator with longest startup time. This default setting ensures
that all users can make their desired clock source setting using an In-System or Parallel
Programmer.
Crystal Oscillator
XTAL1 and XTAL2 are input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier which can be con-
figured for use as an On-chip Oscillator, as shown in Figure 12. Either a quartz crystal or a
ceramic resonator may be used. The CKOPT Fuse selects between two different Oscillator
amplifier modes. When CKOPT is programmed, the Oscillator output will oscillate will a full rail-
to-rail swing on the output. This mode is suitable when operating in a very noisy environment or
when the output from XTAL2 drives a second clock buffer. This mode has a wide frequency
range. When CKOPT is unprogrammed, the Oscillator has a smaller output swing. This reduces
power consumption considerably. This mode has a limited frequency range and it can not be
used to drive other clock buffers.
For resonators, the maximum frequency is 8 MHz with CKOPT unprogrammed and 16 MHz with
CKOPT programmed. C1 and C2 should always be equal for both crystals and resonators. The
optimal value of the capacitors depends on the crystal or resonator in use, the amount of stray
capacitance, and the electromagnetic noise of the environment. Some initial guidelines for
Table 2. Device Clocking Options Select(1)
Device Clocking Option
CKSEL3..0
External Crystal/Ceramic Resonator
1111 - 1010
External Low-frequency Crystal
1001
External RC Oscillator
1000 - 0101
Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator
0100 - 0001
External Clock
0000
Table 3. Number of Watchdog Oscillator Cycles
Typ Time-out (VCC = 5.0V)
Typ Time-out (VCC = 3.0V)
Number of Cycles
4.1 ms
4.3 ms
4K (4,096)
65 ms
69 ms
64K (65,536)


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